The world is facing several controversial environmental constraints, including the
Greenhouse phenomenon and climate change, both of which have become a reality and
should be dealt with wisely. The importance of climate change has been emphasized in
international meetings, among which the 15th Conference of the Parties of the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 15), held in Copenhagen during
the period 7-18 December 2009, as a Conference of the Parties of Kyoto Protocol (CMP-
Syrian Arab Republic is not a major contributor in the emission of greenhouse gases.
However, Syria, like other countries, is affected by the impact of probable global climate
change, characterized by modifications in global precipitations and increased sea levels.
Syria recognized the importance and threats related to climate change and hence joined
international efforts to combat them, ratifying the UNFCCC as early as 10 December 1995.
It signed the Kyoto Protocol on 4 September 2005. Moreover, Syria has been openly
realizing the importance of raising awareness on climate change, which would help the
implementation of proper measures in order to reduce the possible negative impacts. The
UNFCCC of 1992 is one of the recent series of Conventions which most countries have
joined to combat this global challenge.
The cause and effects in time and space of climate change constitute an extremely complex
topic. There are numerous studies which confirm the influence of Greenhouse gases on the
earth’s thermal balance and they therefore ascribe a human reason to climate change.
The adoption of a common strategy to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases requires the
industrial countries to follow intense changes in energy policy, investment in the
development of alternative energy and the introduction of constraints and changes for
industries. Developing countries have been caught between environmental and economic
expansion, since environmental measures usually bring about an additional cost, delaying
industrial development and the achievement of short-term development policy objectives.
Given that climate change is one of the factors contributing to the process of
desertification, it becomes a particularly important issue in the Mediterranean basin,
already marked by the presence of large desert areas where the biosphere’s precarious
balance is deeply exposed to environmental degradation.
The Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Syria’s Initial National Communication to
UNFFCCC (INC project) is being implemented by the State Ministry of Environmental
Affairs, in collaboration with the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and United Nation
Development Program (UNDP).
The goal of the Initial National Communication on Climate Change Project is to provide
support for the Government of Syria in preparing the First Communication Report on
Climate Change (for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change),
according to a methodology followed by all member countries; and to submit it to the
Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention, in addition to enhancing the national
capacity for synergistic implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change. The project also aims to:
– Identify challenges hindering adaptation to climate change;
– Identify national constraints limiting proper implementation of the activities related
to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
– Provide a practical framework to enhance the national capacity for synergistic
implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
– Streamline the commitments and obligations entailed in the global environmental
management system and convert them into national policies.
The preparation of the First Initial Communication on Climate Change included the
following four main themes, in addition to a number of interrelated topics:
1) Identifying national circumstances.
2) An inventory of greenhouse gas emissions.
3) Programs to measure adaptation to climate change.
4) Programs to measure the mitigation (reduction) of greenhouse gas emissions.
All studies were conducted by the project’s management, in cooperation with national
experts from different stakeholders and under direct supervision from the State Ministry for
Environmental Affairs. We hope that this report shall provide a reference and much
information for future policy planning and decision making, to researchers on climate
change, especially at a national level. Special thanks are due to all those who participated
in this important task. The Report as Pdf File